Rothbard describes this modern use of the words overtly as a "capture" from his enemies, saying that "for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy.
But now we had taken it over". According to common meanings of conservative and liberal , libertarianism in the United States has been described as conservative on economic issues economic liberalism and liberal on personal freedom civil libertarianism  and it is also often associated with a foreign policy of non-interventionism. All libertarians begin with a conception of personal autonomy from which they argue in favor of civil liberties and a reduction or elimination of the state.
Left-libertarianism  encompasses those libertarian beliefs that claim the Earth's natural resources belong to everyone in an egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Contemporary left-libertarians such as Hillel Steiner , Peter Vallentyne , Philippe Van Parijs , Michael Otsuka and David Ellerman believe the appropriation of land must leave " enough and as good " for others or be taxed by society to compensate for the exclusionary effects of private property.
Libertarian socialists such as social and individualist anarchists , libertarian Marxists , council communists , Luxemburgists and DeLeonists promote usufruct and socialist economic theories, including communism , collectivism , syndicalism and mutualism. They criticize the state for being the defender of private property and believe capitalism entails wage slavery. Right-libertarianism  developed in the United States in the midth century from the works of European writers like John Locke , Friedrich Hayek and Ludwig Von Mises and is the most popular conception of libertarianism in the United States today.
While often sharing left-libertarians' advocacy for social freedom, right-libertarians also value the social institutions that enforce conditions of capitalism while rejecting institutions that function in opposition to these on the grounds that such interventions represent unnecessary coercion of individuals and abrogation of their economic freedom. Libertarian paternalism  is a position advocated in the international bestseller Nudge by the economist Richard Thaler and the jurist Cass Sunstein.
The designation of joining a pension plan as the default option is an example of a nudge. It is difficult to argue that anyone's freedom is diminished by being automatically enrolled in the plan, when they merely have to check a box to opt out". Anarchism envisages freedom as a form of autonomy  which Paul Goodman describes as "the ability to initiate a task and do it one's own way, without orders from authorities who do not know the actual problem and the available means".
Some right-libertarians consider the non-aggression principle to be a core part of their beliefs.
Libertarians have been advocates and activists of civil liberties, including free love and free thought. Free love appeared alongside anarcha-feminism and advocacy of LGBT rights. Anarcha-feminism developed as a synthesis of radical feminism and anarchism and views patriarchy as a fundamental manifestation of compulsory government. It was inspired by the lateth-century writings of early feminist anarchists such as Lucy Parsons , Emma Goldman , Voltairine de Cleyre and Virginia Bolten.
Anarcha-feminists, like other radical feminists, criticize and advocate the abolition of traditional conceptions of family, education and gender roles. Free Society — as The Firebrand , — as Free Society was an anarchist newspaper in the United States that staunchly advocated free love and women's rights while criticizing " comstockery ", the censorship of sexual information. Free thought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds opinions should be formed on the basis of science, logic and reason in contrast with authority, tradition or other dogmas.
A number of contributors to Liberty were prominent figures in both free thought and anarchism.
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Later in the 20th century, Austrian Freudo-Marxist Wilhelm Reich became a consistent propagandist for sexual freedom going as far as opening free sex-counseling clinics in Vienna for working-class patients  as well as coining the phrase " sexual revolution " in one of his books from the s. Many left-libertarians are anarchists and believe the state inherently violates personal autonomy.
Robert Paul Wolff has argued that "since 'the state is authority, the right to rule', anarchism which rejects the State is the only political doctrine consistent with autonomy in which the individual alone is the judge of his moral constraints".
These latter libertarians advocate instead for freed markets which are freed from these privileges. There is a debate amongst right-libertarians as to whether or not the state is legitimate: while anarcho-capitalists advocate its abolition, minarchists support minimal states, often referred to as night-watchman states. Libertarians take a skeptical view of government authority.
They believe the only legitimate governmental institutions are the military , police and courts , though some expand this list to include fire departments , prisons and the executive and legislative branches. They justify the state on the grounds that it is the logical consequence of adhering to the non-aggression principle and argue that anarchism is immoral because it implies that the non-aggression principle is optional, that the enforcement of laws under anarchism is open to competition. Anarcho-capitalists argue that the state violates the non-aggression principle by its nature because governments use force against those who have not stolen or vandalized private property, assaulted anyone or committed fraud.
Left-libertarians believe that neither claiming nor mixing one's labor with natural resources is enough to generate full private property rights   and maintain that natural resources ought to be held in an egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Right-libertarians maintain that unowned natural resources "may be appropriated by the first person who discovers them, mixes his labor with them , or merely claims them—without the consent of others, and with little or no payment to them".
They believe that natural resources are originally unowned and therefore private parties may appropriate them at will without the consent of, or owing to, others. Left-libertarians, including social and individualist anarchists, libertarian Marxists and left-wing market anarchists, argue in favor of anarchist and libertarian socialist economic theories such as communism, syndicalism and mutualism. The anarchist is primarily a socialist whose aim is to abolish the exploitation of man by man. Anarchism is only one of the streams of socialist thought, that stream whose main components are concern for liberty and haste to abolish the State".
It has been argued that socialist values are incompatible with the concept of self-ownership. Left-libertarianism stresses both individual freedom and social equality.
In its classical usage, left-libertarianism is a synonym for anti-authoritarian varieties of left-wing politics such as libertarian socialism which includes anarchism and libertarian Marxism , among others. While maintaining full respect for personal property , left-libertarians are skeptical of, or fully against, private property , arguing that neither claiming nor mixing one's labor with natural resources is enough to generate full private property rights   and maintain that natural resources such as land, oil, gold and vegetation should be held in an egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively.
Those left-libertarians who support private property do so under occupation and use property norms such as in mutualism, or under the condition that recompense is offered to the local or even global community such as within the Steiner—Vallentyne school. Market-oriented left-libertarianism , including Pierre-Joseph Proudhon 's mutualism and Samuel Konkin III 's agorism , appeals to left-wing concerns such as egalitarianism , gender and sexuality , class , immigration and environmentalism within the paradigm of a socialist free market.
Right-libertarianism advocates negative rights , natural law and a major reversal of the modern welfare state. Elements of libertarianism can be traced as far back as the ancient Chinese philosopher Lao-Tzu and the higher-law concepts of the Greeks and the Israelites. In the middle of that century, opponents of royal power began to be called Whigs , or sometimes simply "opposition" or "country" as opposed to Court writers.
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During the 18th century, liberal ideas flourished in Europe and North America. Long , both libertarian socialists and libertarian capitalists "share a common—or at least an overlapping intellectual ancestry—[ John Locke greatly influenced both libertarianism and the modern world in his writings published before and after the English Revolution of , especially A Letter Concerning Toleration , Two Treatises of Government and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding In the text of , he established the basis of liberal political theory, i. The United States Declaration of Independence was inspired by Locke in its statement: "[T]o secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it". According to Murray Rothbard , the libertarian creed emerged from the liberal challenges to an "absolute central State and a king ruling by divine right on top of an older, restrictive web of feudal land monopolies and urban guild controls and restrictions" as well as the mercantilism of a bureaucratic warfaring state allied with privileged merchants.
The object of liberals was individual liberty in the economy, in personal freedoms and civil liberty, separation of state and religion and peace as an alternative to imperial aggrandizement. He cites Locke's contemporaries, the Levellers, who held similar views. Also influential were the English Cato's Letters during the early s, reprinted eagerly by American colonists who already were free of European aristocracy and feudal land monopolies.
In January , only two years after coming to America from England, Thomas Paine published his pamphlet Common Sense calling for independence for the colonies. In , William Godwin wrote a libertarian philosophical treatise, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Morals and Happiness , which criticized ideas of human rights and of society by contract based on vague promises. He took liberalism to its logical anarchic conclusion by rejecting all political institutions, law, government and apparatus of coercion as well as all political protest and insurrection.
Instead of institutionalized justice, Godwin proposed that people influence one another to moral goodness through informal reasoned persuasion, including in the associations they joined as this would facilitate happiness. Modern anarchism sprang from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, particularly Jean-Jacques Rousseau 's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom.
As part of the political turmoil of the s in the wake of the French Revolution, William Godwin developed the first expression of modern anarchist thought. Godwin is generally regarded as the founder of the school of thought known as philosophical anarchism. He argued in Political Justice   that government has an inherently malevolent influence on society and that it perpetuates dependency and ignorance.
He thought that the spread of the use of reason to the masses would eventually cause government to wither away as an unnecessary force. Although he did not accord the state with moral legitimacy, he was against the use of revolutionary tactics for removing the government from power. Rather, Godwin advocated for its replacement through a process of peaceful evolution. His aversion to the imposition of a rules-based society led him to denounce, as a manifestation of the people's "mental enslavement", the foundations of law, property rights and even the institution of marriage.
Godwin considered the basic foundations of society as constraining the natural development of individuals to use their powers of reasoning to arrive at a mutually beneficial method of social organization.modernpsychtraining.com/cache/products/vufot-mobile-viber.php
Libertarianism - Wikipedia
In each case, government and its institutions are shown to constrain the development of our capacity to live wholly in accordance with the full and free exercise of private judgment. In France, various anarchist currents were present during the Revolutionary period, with some revolutionaries using the term anarchiste in a positive light as early as September Denouncing the Jacobin dictatorship, Jean Varlet wrote in that "government and revolution are incompatible, unless the people wishes to set its constituted authorities in permanent insurrection against itself".
Libertarian socialism , libertarian communism and libertarian Marxism are all phrases which activists with a variety of perspectives have applied to their views. According to anarchist historian Max Nettlau , the first use of the term "libertarian communism" was in November , when a French anarchist congress employed it to more clearly identify its doctrines.
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems.
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