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The benefits of a Job Safety Analysis
Description Job Hazard Analysis: A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond presents a new and improved concept for Job Hazard Analysis JHA that guides the reader through the whole process of developing tools for identifying workplace hazards, creating systems that support hazard recognition, designing an effective JHA, and integrating a JHA based program into occupational safety and health management systems.
Details ISBN All rights reserved. Imprint Butterworth-Heinemann. Authors James E. Where do I begin?
How do I identify workplace hazards? How do I correct or prevent any hazards? What else do I need to know before starting a job hazard analysis? Why should I review my job hazard analysis? When is it appropriate to hire a professional to conduct a job hazard analysis? How does safety and health program management assistance help employers and employees? What are state plans?
How can consultation assistance help employers? Who can get consultation assistance and what does it cost? Can OSHA assure privacy to an employer who asks for consultation assistance? Can an employer be cited for violations after receiving consultation assistance? Does OSHA provide any incentives for seeking consultation assistance? What are the Voluntary Protection Programs?
How does VPP work? How does VPP help employers and employees? How can a partnership with OSHA improve worker safety and health? What do OSPPs do? What are the different kinds of OSPPs? What are the benefits of participation in the OSPP? Does OSHA have occupational safety and health training for employers and employees? Does OSHA give money to organizations for training and education? Does OSHA have other assistance materials available? What other publications does OSHA offer?
What do I do in case of an emergency or if I need to file a complaint? Priority should go to the following types of jobs: Jobs with the highest injury or illness rates; Jobs with the potential to cause severe or disabling injuries or illness, even if there is no history of previous accidents; Jobs in which one simple human error could lead to a severe accident or injury; Jobs that are new to your operation or have undergone changes in processes and procedures; and Jobs complex enough to require written instructions.
Involve your employees. It is very important to involve your employees in the hazard analysis process. They have a unique understanding of the job, and this knowledge is invaluable for finding hazards. Involving employees will help minimize oversights, ensure a quality analysis, and get workers to "buy in" to the solutions because they will share ownership in their safety and health program. Review your accident history.
Review with your employees your worksite's history of accidents and occupational illnesses that needed treatment, losses that required repair or replacement, and any "near misses" events in which an accident or loss did not occur, but could have.
These events are indicators that the existing hazard controls if any may not be adequate and deserve more scrutiny. Conduct a preliminary job review. Discuss with your employees the hazards they know exist in their current work and surroundings. Brainstorm with them for ideas to eliminate or control those hazards. If any hazards exist that pose an immediate danger to an employee's life or health, take immediate action to protect the worker. Any problems that can be corrected easily should be corrected as soon as possible.
Job Safety Analysis : OSH Answers
Do not wait to complete your job hazard analysis. This will demonstrate your commitment to safety and health and enable you to focus on the hazards and jobs that need more study because of their complexity. For those hazards determined to present unacceptable risks, evaluate types of hazard controls. More information about hazard controls is found in Appendix 1.
Step Two: Job Task Breakdown
List, rank, and set priorities for hazardous jobs. List jobs with hazards that present unacceptable risks, based on those most likely to occur and with the most severe consequences. These jobs should be your first priority for analysis. Outline the steps or tasks. Nearly every job can be broken down into job tasks or steps. When beginning a job hazard analysis, watch the employee perform the job and list each step as the worker takes it. Be sure to record enough information to describe each job action without getting overly detailed.
Avoid making the breakdown of steps so detailed that it becomes unnecessarily long or so broad that it does not include basic steps. You may find it valuable to get input from other workers who have performed the same job. Later, review the job steps with the employee to make sure you have not omitted something. Point out that you are evaluating the job itself, not the employee's job performance. Include the employee in all phases of the analysis from reviewing the job steps and procedures to discussing uncontrolled hazards and recommended solutions.
Sometimes, in conducting a job hazard analysis, it may be helpful to photograph or videotape the worker performing the job. These visual records can be handy references when doing a more detailed analysis of the work. A job hazard analysis is an exercise in detective work. Your goal is to discover the following: What can go wrong?
What are the consequences?
go here How could it arise? What are other contributing factors? How likely is it that the hazard will occur? Good hazard scenarios describe: Where it is happening environment , Who or what it is happening to exposure , What precipitates the hazard trigger , The outcome that would occur should it happen consequence , and Any other contributing factors. A sample form found in Appendix 3 helps you organize your information to provide these details. Here is an example of a hazard scenario: In the metal shop environment , while clearing a snag trigger , a worker's hand exposure comes into contact with a rotating pulley.
To perform a job hazard analysis, you would ask: What can go wrong? The worker's hand could come into contact with a rotating object that "catches" it and pulls it into the machine. The worker could receive a severe injury and lose fingers and hands.
How could it happen? The accident could happen as a result of the worker trying to clear a snag during operations or as part of a maintenance activity while the pulley is operating. Obviously, this hazard scenario could not occur if the pulley is not rotating. This hazard occurs very quickly. It does not give the worker much opportunity to recover or prevent it once his hand comes into contact with the pulley.
This is an important factor, because it helps you determine the severity and likelihood of an accident when selecting appropriate hazard controls. Unfortunately, experience has shown that training is not very effective in hazard control when triggering events happen quickly because humans can react only so quickly. This determination requires some judgment. If there have been "near-misses" or actual cases, then the likelihood of a recurrence would be considered high.
If the pulley is exposed and easily accessible, that also is a consideration. In the example, the likelihood that the hazard will occur is high because there is no guard preventing contact, and the operation is performed while the machine is running. By following the steps in this example, you can organize your hazard analysis activities. Hazard Controls: Remove castings from the box and place them on a table next to the grinder. Wear steel-toe shoes with arch protection. Change protective gloves that allow a better grip. Use a device to pick up castings.
Related Job Hazard Analysis: A Guide to Identifying Risks in the Workplace
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