The presence of sorbitan monostearate and glycerol- l -stearate affects slightly the lattice constant a in tristearin; on the other hand, although sorbitan monostearate causes an increase in a of trilaurin, glycerol- l -stearate does not. The presence of sorbitan monolaurate and glycerol- l -laurate affect a of trilaurin similarly to the long chain emulsifiers.
A correlation between the effect on a and the increase in melting point has been found. The presence of the emulsifier does not alter drastically the lattice dimensions of the fat. The slight dissimilarity in crystal structure between tristearin and trilaurin is confirmed by the diverse effects of the emulsifiers on the internal structure of the fat. For the refinement of structural parameters from X-ray powder diffraction data two different methods have been employed and compared, both leading to very similar results.
The X-ray powder pattern of a partially combusted coal product has been separated into its diffraction component caused by die crystalline minerals present in the sample and its amorphous scattering component which is due to the fixed carbon retained in the sample. Analysis of the atompair intensity of the amorphous scattering component indicates that the molecular scatterer s in the fixed carbon fraction are similar, at least in short range structural details, to those in an amorphous carbon black sample which was prepared by high temperature combustion of polynuclear aromatic materials.
X-ray diffraction and neutron spectra present a peak assembly whose maxima are centered at angles corresponding to Bragg's law.
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Such analysis can also be used to estimate the determination of residual stress and lattice defects Warren and Averbach, ; Wilson, In such studies, a detailed analysis of the diffraction distribution is required and consequently adjustment of intensity values must be carried out, as they are affected by systematic errors in the measuring apparatus for detailed description, see Klug and Alexander, and Wilson A quantitative simultaneous determination method by X-ray powder diffractometry is described for calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate in airborne dusts.
To reduce the errors due to the difference-in crystallinity between the standard materials and the samples, the synthesized calcium sulfate anhydrate anhydrite was heated to such an extent that the half-width of the , peak was identical with that of the anhydrite in pretreated dust samples. Standard calcium carbonate calcite was ground until the half-width and the orientation index of the peak of calcite was identical with that of the calcite in dust samples.
The determination limits were 0. Relative standard deviations were 3. The present method is applicable to determination of calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate in actual dust samples. Polynomial coefficients which describe the temperature dependence of the lattice constants of each composition below and above the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition temperature are given. Based on observations of large diffuse scattering maxima in their X-ray diffractograms, it was evident that all of the ashes had a high glass content.
SRM a and , derived from the combustion of bituminous coal, contained different amounts of quartz, mullite, hematite and ferrite spinel magnetite. SRM , derived from subbituminous coal had quite a different chemical composition and a more complex crystalline phase assemblage, that included these four phases plus anhydrite, tricalcium aluminate, lime, periclase and minor phases. SRM , also derived from subbituminous coal, had only quartz, mullite and ferrite spinel as detectable phases in its diffractogram. The changing composition of the glass phases in the SRMs is detected in a shift in the position and shape of the diffuse scattering maximum in the diffractograms.
Use of an internal intensity standard permitted quantitative comparisons of the relative amounts of crystalline phases among the four fly ash SRMs. Synthesis and unit cell parameter refinement of 25 ferroelectric compounds with the tungsten bronze structure are reported. Login Alert. Log in. Recommend this journal.
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View extract. Dislocations in Deformed Aluminum Alloy Z. Zhang , Y. Hubbard , Robert L. Huang , R. Karimi , J. Baumert , G. Davis , Deane K. Vila , A. Fawcett , C.
Mankind at the Crossroads: Civilizational Shift or Self-destruction
Crowder , S. Brownell , Y.
Zhang , C. Hubbard , W.
Schreiner , G. Hamill , T. Huang , E. Sabino , J. Langford , R. Specifically, the resonant frequency shifts induced by linear nonuniform blockages become less evident for higher harmonics. But the physical mechanism of this pattern is still unclear. This study intends to clarify this phenomenon from an energy perspective. For this purpose, the energy transmission coefficient of an unbounded pipeline containing various blockages is analytically derived, which is numerically validated by the method of characteristics. Afterward, the influence of nonuniform blockage properties on the energy transmission is investigated systematically based on the validated result.
The results indicate that the impedance of nonuniform blockages is frequency dependent, which becomes smaller for higher frequency waves.
This means that nonuniform blockages have a less blocking effect on the propagation of higher frequency waves; thus, the resonant frequency shifts induced by nonuniform blockages become less evident.
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